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趣味实验:强磁体在铝管中下落时的涡流分析

[ 关键词:强磁体 铝管 下落 涡流分析  发表日期:2021-10-21 17:36:49 ]

YI、QUWEIWENTI

  一根长 1m 左右的空心铝管竖直放置(见图 1甲),把一枚磁性很强的小圆柱型永磁体从铝管上端放入管口,圆柱直径略小于铝管的内径。根据一般经验,小圆柱自由落下 1m 左右的时间不会超过 0.5s,但把小圆柱从上端管口放入管中后,过了许久它才从铝管下端落出。小圆柱在管内运动时,没有感觉到它跟铝管内壁发生摩擦,把小圆柱靠着铝管,也不见它们相互吸引。是什么原因使小圆柱在铝管中缓慢下落呢?如果换用一条有裂缝的铝管(见图 1乙),圆柱在铝管中的下落就变快了,这又是为什么?”。


ER、QIANGCITIZAILVGUANZHONGXIALUOGUOCHENGDESHIYANXIANXIANG

1、CIJIZHOUXIANGFENBUDEQIANGCITIXIALUODEXIANXIANG

  RUTU 2 SUOSHI,JIANGZHANGDU 1.60m,NEIJING 12mm,WAIJING 15mm DEZITONGGUANSHUZHIFANGZHI,YONGNVTIEPENGCAILIAOZHICHENGDEYUANZHUXINGCIJIZAIZHOUXIANGFENBUDECITI(ZHIJING 10mm,GAODU 60mm)CONGGUANNEIWUCHUSUSHIFANG,DAYUEJINGGUO 8s CITICAICONGGUANDEXIADUANLUOCHU。

2、CIJIZAISHUIPINGFANGXIANGDEQIANGCITIXIALUODEXIANXIANG

  RUTU 3 SUOSHI,RUOJIANGZHANGDU、KUANDU、HOUDUFENBIESHI 40mm、10mm、3mm DECIPIANCONGSHANGSHU

ZHIGUANZHONGXIALUO,DAYUEJINGGUO 2sCITIJIUCONGGUANDEXIADUANLUOCHU。

SAN、 DUISHIYANXIANXIANGDETANJIU:

1、DUICIJIZHOUXIANGFENBUDEQIANGCITIXIALUOXIANXIANGDEJIESHI

(1)DINGXINGSHUOMING

  GUANZIJIAOZHANGSHI,CITIEZAIGUANZHONGXIALUOYIDINGJULIHOU,CITIESHANG、XIAFANGDECITONGLIANGJUNKEYISHIWEIBUBIAN,GENJUFALADIDIANCIGANYINGDINGLV,GUANNEIDEZONGDIANDONGSHIWEILING,GUANNEIDEWOLIUSHIZENYANGXINGCHENGDENI?


  RUOJIANGCITIKANCHENGBUDONG,GUANZIXIANGDUIYUCITIXIANGSHANGYUNDONG,YOUYUCUNZAICIGANYINGQIANGDUYANBANJINGFANGXIANGDEFENLIANG,GUANZIZAIZUOQIEGECIGANXIANYUNDONG,YOUYOUSHOUDINGZEKEYIDECHU,CITIESHANGXIAGUANZIZHONGDEWOLIUFANGXIANGXIANGFAN。CITIESHANGMIANBUFENGUANZHONGDEWOLIUXIANGDANGYUSHANGMIANSHI N JI,XIAMIANSHI S JIDECITI;CITIEXIAMIANBUFENGUANZHONGDEWOLIUXIANGDANGYUSHANGMIANSHI S JI,XIAMIANSHI N JIDECITI,JUTIJIESHIJIANTU 4。

  SHANGSHUFENXIGAOSUWOMEN,YOUYUGUANZIDEWOLIUDUIYUANZHUXINGCITIDEZUOYONGSHI“SHANGLAXIADING”,SUOYIXINGCHENGDUIQIYUNDONGGUOCHENGDEZULI。

(2)DINGLIANGJIESHI

  YOUYUGUANZIDESUOYOUBUFENYIXIANGTONGDESUDUZUOQIEGECIGANXIANYUNDONG,SUOYIGUANZIDERENYIBUFENDOUSHIDIANYUAN。GUANZIZHONGZHANGDUWEI L (JIANTU 5)DERENYIXIAODUANYANYUANZHOURAOXINGYIZHOUDEDONGSHENGDIANDONGSHI,DENGYUYANYUANZHOURAOXINGYIZHOUDEDIANYAJIANGZHIHE。GUANZHONGRENYILIANGDIANJIANDEDIANYAWEILING。

  XIANJISUANZHANGWEI L ,NEIBANJINGWEI r1 ,WAIBANJINGWEI r2DEYIDUANZHIGUANYANYUANZHOURAOXINGYIZHOUDEDIANZUR L 。LIZHOUXIN r CHU,JIEMIANWEI △L ·△r YANYUANZHOURAOXINGYIZHOUDEDIANZUDEDAOSHUWEI:


  YOUYUr2 LVEDAYU r1 ,KEYIRENWEIZAIGUANBINEIXIANGDUIYUCITIDEMOUCHUCIGANYINGQIANGDUYANJINGXIANGDEBUTONGWEIZHI,DAXIAOXIANGTONG。DANGGUANZIYUCITIEDEXIANGDUISUDUDAXIAOWEI v SHI,HULVE r1 HE r2 DECHABIE。


  QIWULIHANYISHIGUANZIKAOJINCIJIFUJINDEWOLIUJIAOQIANG,LICIJIJIAOYUANDEBUFENWOLIUHENRUO,GUANZIKAOJINCIJIFUJINDEWOLIUDUICITIDEDIANCILIQIZHUYAOZUOYONG。SHANGXIAWOLIUFANZUOYONGYUCIJIXINGCHENGDUIYUNDONGCITIDEZULI。

ZUOWEIGUSUANSHANGSHUFANGFADECHUSHOUWEISUDUHESHIYANQINGXINGSHIWENHEDE,BIZHEHEXUESHENGFENBIEYONGZHANGDU

FENBIESHI 1m、 1.6m、 2m、 6m(ZAIHUWAI)DELVGUANZUOSHIYAN,CITIEZAIGUANZHONGXIALUOBUDAO 20cm,

SHOUWOZHIGUANDELIJIUBUZAIBIANHUA,SHUOMINGCIHOUCITIEZUOYUNSUYUNDONG。CELIANGCITIEZAIGUANZHONGDEYUNDONGSHI

JIAN,DECHUCITIEYUNSUXIALUODESUDUDOUZAI 20cm/s ZUOYOU。

2、 DUICIJIZAISHUIPINGFANGXIANGDEQIANGCITIXIALUOXIANXIANGDEJIESHI

( 1)DAOTIBANYUCICHANGXIANGDUIYUNDONGSHIDEANPEILIJISUAN

RUTU 6 SUOSHI,DANGDAOTIBANXIANGDUICICHANGXIANGZUOYUNDONGSHI,JIANGCHUANGUODAOTIBANDECIGANYINGXIANKANCHENGJUN

YUN。JIASHECITIEHEDAOTIBANDEXIANGDUIYUNDONGSUDUDAXIAOWEI v,DAOTIBANZAICICHANGZHONGDEJIHECHICUNYEBIAOZAI

TUSHANG,RUTU 7 SUOSHI。DAOTIBANDEGANYINGDIANDONGSHIDAXIAOWEI:


3、CITIEZAIYOULIEFENGDELVGUANZHONGXIALUOJIAOKUAIDEYUANYINFENXI

  YOUYUGUANZIZHENGTIXIANGDUIYUCITIZUOQIEGECIGANXIANYUNDONG,GUANYUCITISHANGXIADUICHENGCHUDEGUANZIZHONGDEGANYINGDIANDONGSHIDAXIAOXIANGTONG、FANGXIANGXIANGFAN,TONGGUOLIEKOUCHUXINGCHENGBIHEHUILU(RUTU 8 SUOSHI)。YOUYULIEKOUBIAOMIANBOCENGDEDIANZUJIAODA,CITIEYUGUANZIDEXIANGDUISUDUJIAOXIAOSHI,GANYINGDIANLIUJIAORUO,SUOYIWOLIUFANZUOYONGYUCIJIDEDIANCILIJIAORUO。YAOSHIWOLIUFANZUOYONGYUCIJIDEDIANCILIDENGYUCITIEDEZHONGLI,CITIBIXUYIJIAOKUAIDESUDUXIALUO。JIANDANDESHUO,JIUSHIHUILUDEDIANZUBIANDA,YAODADAOHEWULIEKOUDEGUANZIXIANGTONGDEWOLIU,BIXUYAOZENGDADIANDONGSHI,JIZENGDAGUANZIYUCITIDEXIANGDUIYUNDONGSUDU。

SI、JIANYI

1、DUIYUBENWENKAITOUDELIANXITIFENLIANGZHONGLEIXINGDEDIANCIZUNIXIANXIANGJICHU。

(1)CIJIZHOUXIANGFENBUDEQIANGCITIXIALUODEXIANXIANG

(2)CIJIZAISHUIPINGFANGXIANGDEQIANGCITIXIALUODEXIANXIANG

2、DUIYUCIJIZHOUXIANGFENBUDEQIANGCITIXIALUODEXIANXIANGJIESHIYONGGUANZIQIEGECIGANXIANWEIYI,YONGYOUSHOUDINGZEPANDINGGANYINGDIANLIUFANGXIANG。JINYIBUJICHUTU 4 DEWOLIUFENBU,XIANXIANGYIMULERAN。

3、DUIYUYOULIEKOUDEGUANZIDEWOLIUFENXI,RUORANGXUESHENGRENSHIDAOYAOXINGCHENGHUILU,BIXUYAOGUANYUCITISHANGXIADUICHENGXUANZEHUILU(ZHEIYANGFENXIBIJIAOJIANDAN)。YOUYUDIANLIUYAOJINGGUOQUEKOUCHU,XIANGDUIYUWULIEKOUDEGUANZIDEDIANZUBIANDA,XIANGTONGDIANDONGSHIDEQINGKUANGXIADIANLIUBIANXIAO。YAODADAOHEWULIEKOUDEGUANZIXIANGTONGDEWOLIU,BIXUYAOZENGDADIANDONGSHI,JIZENGDAGUANZIYUCITIDEXIANGDUIYUNDONGSUDU。ZHEIYANGFENXIBIJIAOZHUNQUE,XUESHENGYERONGYILIJIE。

WU、SHUOMING

  ZAITANJIU“QIANGCITIZAILVGUANZHONGXIALUOXIANXIANG”SHI,HAIFAXIANLEYIGEYOUQUDEXIANXIANG。YONGPUTONGTIAOXINGCITIEZAIKONGQIZHONGSHUZHIXIALUO,XIALUOGAODUZAI 2m ZUOYOU,CITISHIZHONGCHUYUSHUZHIZHUANGTAI。DANYONG“ZHIJING 10mm,GAODU 60mm”DECIJIZHOUXIANGFENBUDEYUANZHUXINGNVTIEPENGCITIE,ZAISHUZHIZHUANGTAIWUCHUSUXIALUO,FAXIANXIALUO 30cm ZUOYOUCITIEJIUZHUANLE 90°。RUOGANCISHIYANSHUOMING,MEICIXUANZHUANDOUSHIYANNANBEIFANGXIANGPIANZHUAN。JIANGCITIFANFUDIAOZHENGJIAODU,ZAIJIAODUSHIDANGSHINENGGOUFAXIANCITIZAIXIALUOGUOCHENGZHONG,YIZHICHUYUPINGDONGZHUANGTAI。ZHEISHUOMINGDICICHANGDUIQIANGCITIDECILIZUOYONGSHIBIJIAOMINGXIANDE。ZHEITONGSHIYETIGONGLEYIZHONGCEDINGDICICHANGFANGXIANGDEJIANDANFANGFA。ZHEIZHONGXIANXIANGKEYIZUOWEIXUESHENGDETANJIUSHIYAN,TADEMINGZIKEYIJIAO“YONGLUOTIFACEDINGDICICHANGDEFANGXIANG”。